Topic 52: Science and its effects on almost every aspect of social life

Discuss the part played by science in the promotion of public health during the last hundreds years

One of the most striking features of the present century is the progress of science and its effects on almost every aspect of
social life. Building on the foundations laid by their precedessors the scientists of today are carrying their investigation into ever widening fields of knowledge. 

The contribution of science to the promotion of public health in the last hundred years has indeed been tremendous. The unceasing work and experiments of scientists during this time have led to numerous discoveries and removed many misconceptions that many people had before, regarding health illness. The causes of many of the diseases have become generally known. Indeed, many of the facts relating to public health, which are now regarded as common knowledge, were unknown even to the doctors of those days. The fact that germs were the cause of most of the common diseases was not realised by doctors of high repute in the not very distant past. Today, however, even a pupil of a primary school has some knowledge of the destruction that germs can cause. The discovery of germs has indeed revolutionised all medical concepts of disease and illness: everywhere people have come to realise the importance of cleanliness in the prevention of disease. 
The researchers or scientists of all countries have also revealed other secrets. It is now known that illness and diseases can be caused by other living creatures also, such as flies, insects and even birds, animals and human beings. Their discoveries have contributed to the progress of medical science. Today, people in all parts of the world are doing their utmost to destroy the creatures that carry diseases. At the same time, however, scientists have also discovered that certain animals and creatures could provide some cure for a variety of diseases that are dangerous to human beings. Even the curative value
of certain plants has been discovered. 
An important result of the discoveries of scientists has been that, they have also found the cure of almost every disease. It is a practice of the scientists to work for the discovery of a cure as soon as they have discovered the causes of a certain disease. This service of the scientists has promoted the welfare of the human race. In this field of research, scientists make no distinction between races. Whatever they discover is used for the advantage of men everywhere. The progress of humanity is their main aim. 
The work of medical scientists also reduced pain to great extent. In the past operations were performed on individuals in a very crude manner. Amputation was a very painful affair. Today, however. the whole body of a man could be cut open without his feeling any pain by the use of chloroform. In this way science has relieved the misery of men tremendously. 
Another very important discovery has been that, water, without which life cannot exist, sometimes contains the elements of destruction as well. impure water could spread disease and death at tremendous speed. This knowledge has led people in all parts of the world to use only pure water tor all domestic and other purposes. Water is considered so important a factor in public health that all the governments of the world control its use for drinking purposes. All these discoveries have indeed promoted public health during the last hundred years. 
1. foundation(n): sự thành lập, sự sáng lập
2. precedessor (n): người đi trước, người tiền nhiệm
3. unceasing (adj): liên tục, không ngừng, không mệt mỏi
4. misconception (n): quan niệm sai lầm
5. germ(n): vi trùng, mầm bệnh
6. crude (adj): thô thiển, thô bạo
7. amputation (n): thủ thuật cắt cụt
8. chloroform (n): cloroform – một loại hóa chất gây mê
9. factor (n): nhân tố