Topic 65: War and peace

War and peace

Since the time men learned to live in communities, in the remote past, wars have been fought at regular intervals in various parts of the world. In fact, the history of the human race is mainly a record of the battles and wars fought in the past between communities and nations. 

Wars are caused mainly by human greed and ambition. In the early days of men's existence, many communities lived a very hard life, owing perhaps to the lack of geographical advantages or intellectual ability. As a result, the prosperity of other communities aroused their greed and envy, and wars between communities became inevitable. One side fought to conquer the prosperous communities in order to gain control of the means of prosperity, and the other side fought to defend its independence and way of life. With the passage of time, the communities developed into nations, and wars were fought on a bigger scale; but the basic causes of war remained the same. It was only occasionally that battles were fought with other aims such as the capture of a woman to satisfy the sexual of a conqueror or ruler. 
However, success in wars stirred the ambition of many nations. Wars were then fought for domination and extension of power. Several small nations soon came under the dominion of a powerful country, which then developed into an Empire. The Roman Empire, for example, was created mainly by conquest. Even the personal ambitions of some individuals have been the cause of wars at times. The ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler for world conquest caused many battles, in which millions of people, young and old, gave their lives. 
The devastation caused by wars, however, has always aroused the conscience of several nations, and attempts have been made by such nations to prevent wars in the future. Their leaders have met at various times, in the course of history, to discuss peace and to find a way of removing the causes of war. It is this urge that led to the creation of the United Nations, after the failure of the League of Nations, which today is doing its utmost to maintain peace between nations. 
But the desire peace has instead led to further wars, for peace often demands the destruction of the ambitions of those who begin wars. The wars begun by Napoleon and Hitler could be ended only by fighting further wars to destroy these men, who have been responsible for the greatest sufferings in the history of the world. Human ambition, however, is indifferent to the lessons of history. In times of wars, men seek peace; but when there is peace, there are attempts to begin wars. Once a war is begun, however, those responsible for it are crushed in the end. Yet ambitious countries and individuals are still trying to extend their power. but they are being opposed by those who love peace. Thus, wars will continue to exist, while at the same time attempts will be made to attain peace in the world. 


1. at regular intervals (n): đều đặn
2. greed (n): tính tham lam
3. prosperity (n): sự thịnh vượng
4 . conquer (v): chinh phục, xâm chiếm
5. defend (v): bảo vệ
6. lust (n): sự thèm khát, lòng tham
7. stir (v): kích thích, khích động, xúi giục
8. domination (n): sự thống trị
9. dominion (n): quyền thống trị, quyền chi phối
10. devastation (n): sự tàn phá, sự phá hủy
11. conscience (n): lương tâm
12 . failure (n): sự thất bại, cố gắng không thành công
13. League of Nations (n): Hội Quốc Liên
14. destruction (n): sự phá hủy, sự tiêu diệt
1S. crush (v): tiêu diệt địch, dẹp tan, làm tiêu tan
16. oppose (v): chống đối, phản đối
17. attain (v): đạt được, giành được